Oleg Dmitriyevich Baklanov (born March 17, 1932) was a Soviet politician, high functionary in government and industry, and is now a scientist and businessman. As Minister of General Machine Building, he was responsible for Soviet space industry during the 80s.
He was member of the CPSU Central Committee (1988-1991) responsible for issues of state defense and one of the GKChP members during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. Baklanov worked in an instrument engineering factory in Kharkov, Ukraine, and later became chief of the factory. He was appointed as engineering industry minister of USSR in 1983 and Supreme Soviet deputy (1981–91). Included in the post-coup amnesty in 1994. Baklanov is the chairman of the board of governors at the Rosobshemash company.