List of denaturalized former citizens of the United States

Publié le par Roger Cousin

This biographical article relies on references to primary sources. Please add references to secondary or tertiary sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (July 2014). This is a list of denaturalized former citizens of the United States, that is, those who became citizens through naturalization, and had either been stripped of citizenship or were unable to get their passports renewed while outside the United States. In the cases of Solomon Adler and Bhagat Singh Thind, they subsequently obtained United States citizenship.

According to a February 2, 2011 release from the United States Department of Justice, since 1979, the federal government has stripped 107 people of citizenship for alleged involvement in war crimes committed during World War II through the efforts of the Office of Special Investigations (OSI). An unabridged 600-page Justice Department report obtained by The New York Times in 2010 stated, "More than 300 Nazi persecutors have been deported, stripped of citizenship or blocked from entering the United States since the creation of the O.S.I." The Los Angeles Times reported in 2008 that five such denaturalized men could not be deported as no country would accept them, and that four others had died while in the same situation.

Others have been stripped of their citizenship for more mundane crimes; unless otherwise noteworthy, these people are not included on this list. Some of the people on the list below agreed after legal consultation and/or Department of State communications to give up their United States citizenship/nationality in order to avoid legal prosecution and/or exhaustive deportation/removal proceedings, which does not constitute voluntary relinquishment of citizenship as contrasted with the list of former United States citizens who relinquished their nationality.

List of denaturalized former citizens of the United States

Adler, Solomon (1909–1994) 

Government economist under investigation as a communist spy. Moved to Britain and lost his citizenship when his passport expired.  circa 1952  Renewed American citizenship when Sino-American diplomatic relations were reestablished in 1971. See also Lauchlin Currie below.

Almallah, Rasmi Khader 

Became a permanent resident via a 1981 marriage four days before his student visa expired (later deemed "a green card marriage" by the Immigration and Naturalization Service) and naturalized in 1988. Almallah was stripped of his United States citizenship after coming to the authorities' attention for his connection to the Holy Land Foundation (adjudged to be a Hamas fundraising entity) and also as a former employer of one of the 9/11 bombers.  2007  Appealed unsuccessfully to the United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit. Resident of Jordan, where he is a member of the Jordanian Senate.

Artishenko, Basil (1923–1989) 

Member of Nazi-controlled police in Khoiniki (present-day Chojniki, Belarus), accused of helping execute about 100 unarmed people.  October 11, 1984  Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his citizenship and nationality in 1984; died in 1989.
Avdzej, John, akas: Ivan Aŭdzej and Jan Awdziej (1905–1998)  Mayor of Stolpce in Nazi-occupied Poland. March 2, 1984 Left the country in February 1984 for West Germany, where he renounced his US citizenship as part of a deal to avoid prosecution. Died in 1998.

Bartesch, Martin (1926–1989) 

Failure to disclose his past when he applied for U.S. citizenship: member of the Prinz Eugen Division of the S.S. from 1943–44; while a guard at Mauthausen concentration camp, he shot Gottfried Ochshorn dead when Ochshorn attempted to escape.  May 29, 1987 Fled to Austria, where he later died.

Baumann, Anton (1911–1994) 

SS Death Head's Battalion guard at Stutthof and Buchenwald concentration camps. May 17, 1991  Ordered deported to Germany in 1993, but deportation was never carried out due to his health; died in 1994.

Bellei, Aldo Mario 

Born in Italy to an Italian father and an American mother, Bellei lost his citizenship for not moving to and living in the United States for at least five years prior to his 28th birthday; see Rogers v. Bellei.  April 5, 1971 U.S. Supreme Court vacated lower court ruling, finding against Bellei in 1971. Provision under which Bellei was denaturalized was repealed (Public Law 95-432) by Congress in 1978.

Berezowskyj, Walter (né Wolodymyr Berezowskyj; 1924–2010) 

Guard at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Gusen concentration camps.  September 15, 1998  Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 2010.
Bernes, Peter John (né Petras Bernotavičius; 1922–2004) Deputy to Nazi-appointed mayor and police commander Werner Loew in Kupiškis, Lithuania.  May 23, 2002 Fled to Lithuania in 2002, where he later died.

Bless, Anton (1924–2004) 

SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Auschwitz concentration camp.  December 18, 1992 Fled to Germany in 1992, where he died in 2004.

Braunsteiner, Hermine (1919–1999) 

Failure to disclose conviction for war crimes; female concentration camp guard.  1971 First Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. Sentenced to life imprisonment, but released in 1996 for health reasons.

Bučmys, Ildefonsas (1920–2005)

Guard at Majdanek concentration camp.  February 17, 2005 Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 2005; he died later that same year.

Budreika, Joseph (né Juozas Budreika; 1916–1996) 

Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft.  May 28, 1996 Fled to Lithuania on May 14, 1996 in an agreement with the OSI. Died less than a month after arriving in Lithuania.

Čiurinskas, Kazys, akas: Casimir/Kasimir/Kazimeris/Charlie/Casey Čiurinskas (1918–2001) 

Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft.  June 18, 1997 Fled to Lithuania in 1999 after consenting to deportation.

Currie, Lauchlin (1902–1993) 

Economist suspected of being a spy for the Soviet Union. Unable to get his passport renewed while working in Colombia.  1954  Became a Colombian citizen.

Dailidė, Algimantas (born 1921) 

For having "illegally procured" citizenship. Member of the Lithuanian Security Police during World War II.  January 29, 1997 Fled to Germany in 2004 after being ordered deported. Convicted by a Lithuanian court in 2006, but not imprisoned due to his age. Still lives in Germany.

Damrah, Fawaz Mohammed 

Imam who was convicted on June 18, 2004 of lying on his naturalization application about his association with three groups classified as terrorist organizations by the U.S. government. September 23, 2004 Deported to the Palestinian West Bank in January 2007.

Demjanjuk, John (1920–2012) 

Allegedly concealed being a concentration camp guard at Sobibor, Majdanek, Flossenbürg, and Trawniki, thus committing naturalization fraud.  June 25, 1981. Citizenship restored February 20, 1998. Denaturalized again on February 21, 2002.  Deported to Germany. On July 13, 2009, Demjanjuk was formally charged with 28,060 counts of accessory to murder, one for each person who died at Sobibor during the time he was accused of serving as a guard at the Nazi death camp. On November 30, 2009, Demjanjuk's trial began in Munich. Convicted by Germany in 2011, but released from custody pending his appeal. Died in 2012 before appeal could be heard, thus the Munich District court declared him "presumed innocent". The court confirmed that, in accordance with German law, Demjanjuk's previous interim conviction had been invalidated and that Demjanjuk was without a criminal record.

Denzinger, Jakob Frank, a.k.a. Jacob Frank Denzinger (born 1924) 

Guard at Mauthausen, St. Georgen, Kraków, and Auschwitz concentration camps. November 27, 1989 Fled to West Germany in August 1989; living in Croatia as of 2014.

Derkacz, Michael, a.k.a. Michael Dercacz (1909–1983) 

Member of the Ukrainian police who "assisted the Nazis in persecuting civilian Jews." February 4, 1982 Derkacz failed to file a notice of appeal against this summary judgment before the time for such an appeal expired, and the revocation of his citizenship thus became final. He died in August 1983 before his deportation hearings were scheduled to begin.

Didrichsons, Valdis (1913–1995)

Member of Arajs Kommando military unit in Nazi-occupied Latvia.  March 5, 1990 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1995.

Fedorenko, Feodor (1907–1987) 

Guard at Treblinka extermination camp.  March 11, 1981  Extradited to the Soviet Union, where he was executed.

Firishchak, Osyp, akas: Osip/Yosef/Josif/Josyf; Firischtschak/Firiscak/Firischak/Firiszczak/Firischtschuk/Firitschak/Firschak (1919–2012) 

Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police.  August 30, 2005 Ordered deported by an immigration judge; appeal denied by Supreme Court on February 21, 2012. Died later that same year.

Friedrich, Adam (1921–2006) 

Guard at Gross-Rosen, Dyhernfurth, and Flossenbürg concentration camps. February 24, 2004 Died in July 2006 before deportation proceedings could begin.

Galan, Orest (born 1921)  Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police 

November 2006  Ordered to leave United States by November 15, 2006 in settlement agreement with the OSI. Returned to Ukraine.

Geiser, Anton (1924–2012) 

SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald.  September 29, 2006 Died in 2012 while appealing his deportation.

Gimžauskas, Kazys (1908–2001) 

Deputy to Aleksandras Lileikis in the Lithuanian Security Police.  June 1996  Fled to Lithuania in 1993 or 1994. Convicted by a Lithuanian court in 2001, but not imprisoned "after experts concluded he was not mentally fit to take responsibility for his past actions."Died shortly afterward.

Goldman, Emma (1869–1940) 

Anarchist.  1919  Deported on December 21, 1919; landed in Finland on January 17, 1920, and sent from there to the Russian border.

Gorshkow, Mikhail (1923–2013) 

Former interrogator for the Gestapo accused of participating in the murders of about 3,000 people. July 29, 2002 Fled to Estonia before being denaturalized.Died in 2013.

Gostić, Jadranko (born 1963) 

Served in the Zvornik Infantry Brigade of the Bosnian Serb Army from April 1992 until December 1995; concealed involvement in war crimes in Bosnia, including Srebrenica (1995).  June 1, 2010  Deported to Serbia in 2010 after agreeing to admit to the allegations against him, be denaturalized and surrender any claim to lawful permanent resident status.

Grabauskas, Joseph J. (né Juozas Grabauskas; 1918–2002) 

Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft. November 1993  Repatriated to Lithuania as per settlement with the OSI in November 1993; died in 2002.

Gudauskas, Vytautas (1918–1997)

Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft.  1994  Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship; died in 1997.

Habich, Jakob, a.k.a. Jacob Habich (1913–1995)

SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Lublin and Auschwitz concentration camps.  March 14, 1990 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1995.

Hajda, Bronisław, akas: Bronislaw Hajda and Bruno Hajda (1924–2005)

Guard at Trawniki concentration camp and Treblinka labor camp; member of SS Battalion Streibel. April 9, 1997 Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2005.

Hammer, Ferdinand (1921–2004) 

SS guard at Auschwitz and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. May 22, 1996 Deported to Austria in 2000, where he died in 2004.

Hansl, John, né Johann Hansl (1925–2007) 

SS Death's Head Battalion guard at the Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler concentration camps. April 8, 2005  Died in 2007 in Des Moines, Iowa before deportation proceedings could begin.

Hartmann, Martin (born c. 1919) 

SS-Death Head's Battalion guard at Sachsenhausen concentration camp. September 2007 Agreed to permanently depart the United States for Germany on August 31, 2007 in an agreement with the OSI. Believed to be living in Berlin.

Hrusitzky, Anatoly (1917–1992) 

Member of Nazi-controlled police force in Cherny Ostrov, Ukraine June 29, 1984  Fled to Venezuela in 1984, where he renounced his United States citizenship and later died in 1992.

Hutyrczyk, Sergis (1924–1993) 

Guard at Koldyczewo concentration camp.  October 2, 1992 Died in 1993 while appealing his denaturalization.

Jean-Baptiste, Lionel (born 1947) 

Failure to "establish and maintain 'good moral character'" due to conviction as a drug dealer after application for citizenship, but before his naturalization on April 23, 1996.  circa 2003  Denied entry to Haiti, his homeland, after denaturalization, on the grounds he had relinquished his Haitian citizenship by becoming a U.S. citizen. Jailed in 2006 for a subsequent drug-related crime. Released on an Order of Supervision after the United States Supreme Court ruled that foreigners who could not be deported could not be detained indefinitely.

Jordan, Gilberto (born 1956) 

Participated in the Dos Erres massacre, Guatemala in December 1982.  September 16, 2010 Currently serving 10-year prison sentence at FDC Miami for naturalization fraud.

Kairys, Liudas (né Liudvikas Kairys; 1920–1999) and also known as Ludwig Kairys 

Platoon leader at Treblinka. December 28, 1984 Deported to Germany in 1993. Germany suspended its investigation of him in 1999, by which time he had died.

Kalymon, John, né Jan Kalymun, a.k.a. Iwan Kalymon (1921–2014) 

Service in Nazi-affiliated Ukrainische Hilfspolizei (Ukrainian Auxiliary Police) during World War II. The U.S. Justice Department says Kalymon claimed to have shot and killed a Jew in 1942 when Jews were being removed from what is now Lviv, Ukraine. He later denied having done so. March 29, 2007 Died in 2014 while awaiting extradition to Germany.
Kauls, Juris (1912–2008)  Deputy chief and inspector of guards at a concentration camp near Riga, Latvia. September 8, 1988 Fled to West Germany in August 1988. Died in Latvia in 2008.

Kiršteins, Miķelis (1916–1994) 

Member of Arajs Kommando military unit in Nazi-occupied Latvia.  December 1991 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1994.

Klimavičius, Jonas (1907–1993)

Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft  November 28, 1988 Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 1988; died in 1993.

Knauer, Paul (1895–1962) 

False oath of allegiance due to affiliations with German-American Bund, German-American Citizens Alliance and the German Winter Relief Fund, the last being an official agency of the German government for which German consulates solicited money in the United States. June 10, 1946 Regained entry to the United States in 1957.

Koréh, Ferenc (1909–1997) 

Editor of the Hungarian pro-Axis newspaper Szekely Nep.  June 28, 1994 Ordered deported in 1997, but deportation was not carried out due to his health; died later that same year.

Kowalchuk, Serge, a.k.a. Serhij Kowalczuk (1920–1998) 

Senior member of Lithuania militia supporting Nazi persecution of Jews in the town of Lubomyl. July 1, 1983 Fled to Paraguay in 1987. Died in 1998.

Koziy, Bohdan akas: Bohdan Jozij, Bogdanus Kosij (1923–2003)

Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police.  March 29, 1982 Fled to Costa Rica in 1985, where he died in 2003.

Krysa, Wasyl (1925–2004) 

SS guard at Poniatowa and Gusen concentration camps.  October 5, 2001 Died in 2004, while appealing his denaturalization.

Kuhn, Fritz Julius (1896–1951) 

Fraud in naturalization process.  June 1, 1943 Leader of the German American Bund. Jailed as an enemy agent, and deported to Germany in late 1945.

Kumpf, Josias (1925–2009) 

SS-Death's Head Guard at Sachsenhausen and Trawniki. May 10, 2005  Deported to Austria in 2009, where he died later that year.

Kungys, Juozas, a.k.a. Joseph Kungys (1915–2009) 

Making false statements on his visa application.  A district court decision in Kungys' favor was reversed by the Court of Appeals, and he was remanded for denaturalization on June 20, 1986. The decision was overturned by the Supreme Court on May 2, 1988. Kungys agreed to give up his U.S. citizenship in 1988 to avoid deportation.  Died in Hudson County, New Jersey in 2009.

Kuras, Andrew, akas: Andrej/Andrij/Andrey/Andreas/Andrzej/Andre Kuras (1922–2007) 

Guard at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Dorohucza concentration camps; member of SS-Battalion Striebel.  April 14, 2004 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 2007.

Kwoczak, Fedir (aka Fedor Kwoczak; 1921–2003) 

Guard at Trawniki and Poniatowa concentration camps; participated in liquidation of Warsaw and Białystok ghettos; member of SS-Battalion Streibel.  June 27, 2002  Died in 2003 while appealing his denaturalization.

Leili, Stefan (1909–1995) 

SS-Death's Head guard at Mauthausen concentration camp who admitted shooting a 17-year-old French Jew, Leon Axelroud, during an escape attempt.  December 30, 1986  Fled to West Germany in August 1986, where he died in 1995.

Leprich, Johann (aka John M. Leprich 1925–2013) 

SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Mauthausen concentration camp. July 13, 1987  Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2013.

Lileikis, Aleksandras (1907–2000) 

Accused of leading a secret Lithuanian police unit during World War II.  May 24, 1996 Returned to Lithuania in 1996. War crimes trial suspended in 2000 due to ill health of defendant, who died the same year, aged 93.

Linnas, Karl (1919–1987) 

Making false statements to gain citizenship. Commandant of a Nazi concentration camp.  July 30, 1981 Deported to the Soviet Union. Died while awaiting trial.

Lytwyn, Wasyl (born 1921) 

Guard at Trawniki concentration camp; participated in the liquidation of Warsaw ghetto; member of SS-Battalion Streibel. December 1995  Repatriated to Ukraine in December 1995 as per agreement with the OSI.

Mandycz, Iwan (born 1920) 

Guard at the Trawniki and Poniatowa camps near Lublin in Nazi-occupied Poland. Became a U.S. citizen in 1955.  February 28, 2005. Appeal dismissed May 22, 2006. Has not been deported due to his health.

Miling, Jakob (1924–2009) 

SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Gross-Rosen and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. August 4, 2003 Fled to Serbia in September 2002, where he renounced his U.S. citizenship a year later and died in 2009.

Milius, Adolph (né Adolfas Milinavičius; 1918–1999) 

Member of the Lithuanian Security Police.  August 17, 1998 Fled to Lithuania in 1996, where he died in 1999.

Mineikis, Antanas (1918–1997)

Stripped of his United States citizenship on suspicion of organizing reprisals during the Nazi occupation of the Baltic region during World War II.  January 1992  Deported to Lithuania in September 1992, where he died on November 24, 1997.

Mozumdar, A. K. (1864–1953) 

Claimed to be Caucasian to satisfy a law then in effect restricting naturalization to "free white persons", becoming the first Asian Indian to gain American citizenship. United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind ruled that Asian Indians were not white.  1923 

Munyenyezi, Beatrice (born 1970) 

Member of the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development, assisted in the Rwandan Genocide  February 21, 2013  Currently serving 10-year prison sentence at FCI Aliceville for naturalization fraud.

Negele, Michael (1920–2008) 

Guard and attack dog handler at Sachsenhausen and Theresienstadt concentration camps. July 20, 1999 Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2008.

Negewo, Kelbessa (born 1950) 

Convicted in Ethiopia in absentia of torture as a member of the then-ruling Derg.  2006 Deported to Ethiopia, where he is serving a life sentence.

Osidach, Wolodymir (1904–1981) 

Member of the Ukrainian police involved in the persecution of Jews in Rawa Ruska during German occupation. March 17, 1981 Died while case was being appealed.

Palčiauskas, Kazys (1907–1992)

World War II-era mayor of Kaunas, complicit in the persecution of Jews. February 23, 1983 Died in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida in 1992 while appealing his deportation.

Palij, Jakiw (born 1923) 

Failed to disclose he had been a concentration camp guard at the Trawniki concentration camp.  July 31, 2003 Remains in the United States, as no country has been found to accept him.

Pasker, Mike, a.k.a. Mečys Paškevičius (1901–1993) 

Failed to disclose his World War II era service in the Nazi-affiliated Lithuanian Security Police from 1941–44  August 23, 1979 (consented to denaturalization) Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1993.

Prouty, Nada Nadim (born c. 1970) 

Former CIA agent who pled guilty two felonies related to a sham (green card) marriage and to one misdemeanor count of unauthorized use of an FBI computer. Renounced all claims to United States citizenship.  2007  Granted withholding of deportation/removal due to perceived threat to her life in her native Lebanon; she must comply with an Order of Supervision issued by the Department of Homeland Security.

Quintus, Peter (1915–1997)

SS guard at Majdanek concentration camp July 1988 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1997.

Reger, Stefan (1925–2003) 

Reger, a native of Filipovo, Yugoslavia, was stripped of his United States citizenship due to naturalization fraud related to World War II service in the SS Death's Head Battalion (which he admitted) and at Birkenau (which he denied).  September 8, 1988  Fled to West Germany in 1988, where he died in 2003.

Reimer, Jakob, a.k.a. Jack Reimer (1918–2005) 

Trawniki concentration camp guard.  September 5, 2002  Died before he could be deported to Germany.

Reve, Hiram Cristobal (born 1961) 

Committed naturalization fraud when he failed to disclose his July 12, 1995 arrest for sexually assaulting a 14-year old boy in May 1995 when submitting his naturalization application dated July 27, 1995. United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey Chris Christie (later Governor of New Jersey) successfully concluded that Reve knowingly tried to deceive the federal government in not disclosing his arrest.  January 31, 2003  Reve presently resides in New Jersey as a legal permanent resident due to the existing Wet feet, dry feet policy on repatriating Cuban nationals back to Cuba.

Rudolph, Arthur (1906–1996) 

German rocket scientist who worked on the V-2. Renounced citizenship under pressure. March 25, 1984 Died in Hamburg, Germany in 1996.

Rydlinski, Chester (né Wiatscheslaw Rydlinskis; 1924–1997) 

Guard and attack dog handler at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland, the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany and at Buchenwald's Laura subcamp.  July 21, 1995 Fled to Germany in late 1994, where he died in 1997.

Sawchuk, Dmytro (1924–2004) 

Guard at Trawniki concentration camp and Bełżec extermination camp; participated in liquidation of Białystok ghetto; member of SS-Battalion Streibel  March 23, 1999 Fled to Germany in 1999, where he renounced his US citizenship and later died in 2004.

Schellong, Conrad (1910–1992) 

For "concealing his role as a guard and later commander at the Sachsenburg and Dachau Nazi death camps from 1934 to 1939." September 9, 1982 Deported to West Germany in 1988, where he later died.

Schiffer, Nikolaus (1919–2007) 

Guard at Sachsenhausen, Hersbruck, Majdanek, and Trawniki concentration camps. August 25, 1993 (Born in the US, he expatriated himself by serving in the Romanian Army and Waffen SS during World War II.)  Deported to Romania in 2002, where he later died in 2007.

Schmidt, Michael (1923–2008) 

Did not contest the Office of Special Investigations/Justice Department Criminal Division allegation that he participated in the persecution of civilians while serving as an armed guard at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. January 3, 1990  Agreed to permanently depart the United States by December 31, 1992 in an agreement with the OSI. Died in Germany in 2008.

Schuk, Mykola (1909–1986)

Member of Nazi police force in Ukraine.  November 1, 1985 Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 1985; died a year later.

Schwinn, Hermann Max, a.k.a. Herman Schwinn (1905–1973) 

Fraudulently and illegally procured naturalization. He became a United States citizen on July 22, 1932. Leader of the Western Division of the Friends of New Germany and the German-American Bund. Citizenship canceled on July 15, 1939; on May 10, 1940, judgment affirmed and appeal denied. Died in 1973 in Florida.

Sokolov, Vladimir (aka Vladimir Sokolov-Samarin; 1913–1992) 

Editor and propaganda writer for the pro-Nazi Russian newspaper Rech. June 2, 1986 Fled to Canada in 1988, where he later died.

Sosa, Jorge (born 1958) 

Participated in the Dos Erres massacre, Guatemala in December 1982.  February 10, 2014 Sentenced to 10 years in prison for naturalization fraud on February 10, 2014.

Mollie Steimer (born 1897, Tsarist Russia – died 1980, Mexico)

et al (3 co-defendants)  Anarchist; arrested in 1918 for violating the Espionage Act of 1917  Deported November 1, 1922 to Russia along with three co-defendants  Received a 15 year sentence in prison. Samuel Lipman (co-defendant) was executed on the orders of Stalin, Hyman Lachowsky (co-defendant) was killed by the Nazis, and Jacob Abrams (co-defendant) settled in Mexico, as did Steimer.

Stelmokas, Jonas (né Stelmokevičius; 1916–1998) 

Lithuanian officer in the "[3rd Company of the 3rd Battalion of the Lithuanian] Schutzmannschaft ... acquiesced in the murder and persecution of Jews and other unarmed civilians in Lithuania. Around August 1944, at the time the German occupation of Lithuania ended, Stelmokas entered the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) in the 91st Light Flak Replacement Unit".  August 2, 1995(original decision); November 12, 1996 (appeal rejected by the United States Court of Appeals) Died in Pennsylvania in 1998 while appealing his deportation.

Szehinskyj, Theodor (born 1924) 

SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Gross-Rosen, Sachsenhausen and Nazi camp in Warsaw concentration camps. July 24, 2000 Remains in the United States, as no country will accept him.

Szendi, Joseph (né József Szendi; 1915–2004) 

Member of Royal Hungarian Gendarmerie, a paramilitary unit which deported Hungarian Jews to Nazi-occupied Poland. June 18, 1993  Fled to Hungary in 1993 in an agreement with the Justice Department; died in 2004.

Tannenbaum, Jacob (c. 1912–1989) 

Jewish kapo at Goerlitz concentration camp. February 4, 1988 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1989.

Theodorovich, George (né Jurij Theodorowytsch; born 1922) 

Member of Nazi-controlled police force in Ukraine  January 27, 1984 Fled to Paraguay on December 18, 1988.

Thind, Bhagat Singh 

Second attempt at citizenship. Naturalization revoked for being of Asian descent, based on then caselaw.  December 13, 1918 and February 19, 1923 (two separate occasions)  Thind remained in the U.S. and eventually qualified under U.S. law to become a citizen, which he did in 1936 (his third attempt).

Tittjung, Anton (1924–2012) 

Guard at Mauthausen concentration camp. December 14, 1990 Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2012.

Trifa, Valerian, a.k.a. Viorel Trifa (1914–1987) 

Former member of the fascist Iron Guard of Romania. He was Detroit Archbishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church until the Department of Justice's OSI investigation, which began in 1975. Renounced U.S. citizenship.  August 26, 1980 Fled to Portugal, where he died in 1987.

Virkutis, Antanas (1913–1993) 

Warden of Siauliai prison in Nazi-occupied Lithuania April 1988 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1993.

Von Bolschwing, Otto Albrecht Alfred (1909–1982) 

SS Captain and advisor to Adolf Eichmann. December 22, 1981 Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1982.

Wasylyk, Mykola (1923–2010) 

Concentration camp guard at Trawniki and Budzyn.  July 13, 2001 Remained in the U.S. after denaturalization as no other country would accept him. He died in 2010.

Wieland, Josef (1908–1992) 

SS-Death's Head guard at Mauthausen concentration camp.  June 19, 1986 Fled to West Germany in 1986, where he died in 1992.

Wittje, Joseph (1920–2006) 

Waffen-SS guard at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.  August 27, 2004  Died in 2006 before deportation hearings could begin.

Wojciechowski, Chester (1920–2003) 

Guard at the Majdanek concentration camp. October 5, 1987 Fled to West Germany, where he died in 2003.

Zajančkauskas, Vladas (1915-2013) 

Trawniki concentration camp guard who participated in the Nazi operation at the Warsaw Ghetto.  January 26, 2005  Ordered deported by an immigration judge; appeal denied by Supreme Court on November 18, 2010.

Ziegler, John (né Johann Ziegler; 1907–1997)

SS-Death's Head guard at Stutthof, Kauen, and Gotenhafen concentration camps. 1991 Fled to Austria in 1991; died in 1997.

Zultner, Martin (1912–1997) 

Guard at Schwechat, Floridsdorf, and Modling, three subcamps of Mauthausen in Austria.  October 23, 1990 Moved to Austria in 1975, where he renounced his US citizenship in 1990 and later died in 1997.

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